Another useful item is pepper spray. The smaller the more portable, however sometimes larger canisters are handier and contain a higher OC concentrate. There are also pepper spray guns with a reach of around 20 feet. However, these are less portable, so keep that in mind.
This highly useful tool is highly underrated in terms of self-defense. A flashlight to the face, especially a tactical, high-lumen flashlight can disorient an assailant. A small tactical flashlight with a strobe light option is ideal. However, even a phone flashlight is better than no flashlight. It’s a good idea to have a shortcut to your flashlight app.
A loud whistle (or another similar tool like a blow horn) can attract a lot of attention that a would-be assailant will prefer to avoid. Much like the flashlight, this can disorient an attacker.
Always maintain situational awareness. If you’re about to pass by a dark alley, cross the street so as to avoid said alley. Don’t walk around at night with your attention completely absorbed by your phone. Avoid being cornered.